To "read" a set of chromosomes, scientists use three key features to identify their similarities and differences:
- Size. This is the easiest way to tell chromosomes apart.
- Banding pattern. The size and location of Giemsa bands make each chromosome unique.
- Centromere position. Centromeres appear as a constriction. They have a role in the separation of chromosomes into daughter cells during cell division (mitosis and meiosis).
Using these key features, scientists can identify all 46 chromosomes one set of 23 from each parent